With millions of Americans out of work, the first sign of a recovery has to be in new jobs coming on the market. The tribal gaming industry is doing its part, with several operators posting new jobs in the past few weeks.Seneca Gaming Corporation has lots of jobs available at the Seneca Niagara Resort & Casino in Niagara Falls and Seneca Buffalo Creek Casino in downtown Buffalo. The operator will be hosting a job fair for open positions on February 25 between 10:00am and 6:00pm.“Even with the changes and challenges everyone has gone through over the past year, Seneca Gaming Corporation has remained one of the largest employers in Western New York, and we are excited to be growing our team across a variety of departments,” said Meghan Smith, Seneca Gaming Corporation’s vice president of human resources. “We truly believe that the time we spend at work should be rewarding, fulfilling and fun. That’s how we approach our jobs every day. If people are looking an opportunity in that type of environment, we are ready to talk to them.”Attendees can check out what’s on offer in person or virtually, but should be ready for an interview at a moment’s notice.On the other side of the country, the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians are also on the look out for fresh talent. That operator has more than 500 jobs to fill, with as many as 2000 coming for the rest of the year. They’ll be having their virtual career fair on February 18 from 9:00am to 4:00pm.“The expansion of San Manuel will offer an economic boost to the local job market at a time when it is really needed,” said Brigitte Saria, Chief People and Infrastructure Officer. “Our efforts to boost the local economy are guided by our commitment to ensuring our employment process and work environment follow leading health and safety standards.”The Chukchansi Gold Resort and Casino in Coarsegold, California are also hiring. The tribe is looking for 50 full-time and part-time positions, and will have a job fair on February 23 from 10:00am to 1:00pm.Add those jobs to the 150 that Oneida Nation Enterprises were offering as of last week, and there’s a lot to be hopeful for about the future of the economy, and particularly that of tribal gaming.Connecticut tribes close to new dealGovernor Ned Lamont wants sports betting in his state, and he needs a new deal with the tribes to get it done. He used his budget address to emphasize the push:“My administration has been in active negotiations with our tribal partners to bring the state’s gaming economy into the digital age. And I am submitting legislation which reflects what I believe to be the best bet in ending this stalemate of inaction in a way which is in the best interest [of] the entire state.”Construction resumes at Four WindsThe Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians’ contractor recently resumed building a hotel at Four Winds South Bend Casino. Construction slowed down significantly due to Covid-19.The new 23-story hotel was originally due to be completed this year. But with construction crews only working on the foundation now after a 10-month delay, maybe 2022 seems more accurate.
ปอยเปต คาสิโน ออนไลน์
ปอยเปต คาสิโน ออนไลน์
The UK Betting and Gaming Council (BGC) is asking football clubs to refrain from discussing and promoting gambling on their social media sites in as part of an effort to avoid triggering problem gamblers. It’s move that may seem extreme to the layman, but will likely help keep UK gambling operators a step ahead of UK gambling regulators.
Guidelines for how football clubs should handle discussions of gambling were sent out by the BGC late last week and utilize a plea from 50 former gambling addicts to make the case. They pointed out that seeing their favorite club site promoting gambling caused them “distress” and “encouraged” them to place wagers.
As an effort to avoid these triggering moments, the BGC is recommending that football clubs refrain from promoting gambling operators or bonus offers and their “organic tweets”. This is a nod to the reality that gambling offers are ubiquitous on social media and that no one is really more than a click or two away from them on the internet anyways.
BGC officials sent a letter detailing the new code of conduct to 11 football clubs, as well as to social media operators.
In a statement reported on by SBC News, Brigid Simmonds OBE, Chairman of the BGC described the importance of the new standards saying, “Our members rightly have a zero tolerance approach to gambling by under-18s, so as an industry we are understandably concerned that children may be exposed to betting adverts on social media platforms. Our new guidelines make clear the standards expected of football clubs when they post gambling promotions on social media, and I look forward to them being put into practice as soon as possible.”
The BGC guidelines are not legally binding, but members of the BGC who wish to remain in good standing are expected to abide by them.
The post BGC ices gambling talk on football social media sites appeared first on .
A title like Silver Trails offers a Wild West theme. Notwithstanding this well known theme, this present Novomatic’s slot has 5 reels, 3 rows and 243 different ways to win. In spite of these features, the game has various and interesting things on offer.The Wilds and Scatters are essential for the combination and they carry multipliers with them just as a Jackpot Feature which allows you to win one of 4 different bonanzas. A bet feature is likewise available.Betting and Prizes Much the same as in most slot games, you’ll need to match identical images to get prizes. You can get 3 images in a combo and win a prize. Be that as it may, you can likewise get 4 or 5 of them and improve prize. As said earlier, this game allows you to win one out of 4 bonanzas. They are the Mini, Minor, Major, and Grand bonanzas. Silver Trails has a lot to offer.Silver Trails’ Slot Features Since the royal card images are very famous you’ll see them in this title too. They are joined by the 10 image just as images that fit the theme. These are the revolver and bullet, the cowboy and others.Normally, there are some exceptional images in the combination. The Wild is the first and it seems stacked on reels 2 and 4. Other than this one, you additionally have the Silver Star image which is the Scatter one. At the point when it lands on reels 1, 3, or 5 you’ll get a multiplier that equals the sum on the stars that landed.Also, the Scatter is liable for another feature too. However, for that, you’ll need at least 6 Scatters to trigger this feature. When this occurs, the images that set off the feature remain and place, and you get 3 Bonus spins. The counter moves to 3 when you land another Scatter.On the off chance that you are able to cover the whole reels with the Silver Star image, you’ll get the Grand Jackpot. Then again, you can get any of the other 3. Strong multipliers are additionally important for this feature and they can get as high as 20x your stake.The last feature that allows you to increase your rewards is the Gamble feature. In any case, it’s a dangerous feature as you can lose them on the off chance that you don’t play it right.Theme and Design With Silver Trails slot fans are given another title that is motivated by the Wild West. The images and the background of the game look stunning and the game mechanics are impeccable. At long last, the game’s engineers didn’t mix out the opportunity to make this a mobile-friendly game too.ConclusionSilver Trails takes you to the Wild West and allows you to earn huge prizes. Because of the Jackpot feature you can leave with 1 out of 4 magnificent bonanzas. On the other hand, you can try our the bet feature and appreciate the multipliers that come with the Silver Stars. Wilds are in the combination too.
ts911 คาสิโน ออนไลน์…
Intelitics, the leading performance marketing and analytics platform provider, has been granted a licence by the Colorado Division of Gaming allowing it to work with licensed sportsbook operators in the state for the first time.Intelitics already holds licences in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, with Colorado the third with more to follow in the coming months.Intelitics provides online sportsbook and casino operators with a single platform that allows them to track, analyze and grow all acquisition partnerships and campaigns across web and mobile through access to real-time data which in turn allows them to unlock hidden revenue and boost ROI.Intelitics’ real-time data hub keeps media buyers, analysts and executives on the same page about spend and results. Operators can use one set of metrics to “slice and dice” media performance to discover what activity is delivering the best results.Powerful, streamlined reports provide full visibility into cross-channel interaction and the customer journey. A holistic view of costs v player value means operators can easily determine the most valuable media sources which improves revenue allocation modelling and inform media investment.CasinoAffiliatePrograms, the premier standalone iGaming specific Ad Network, which is powered and run by the Intelitics team, has delivered more than $70m in net game revenue through 150,000+ new depositing customers.Armed with its Colorado licence, Intelitics is now looking to work with licensed online sportsbook operators in the state in order to help them unlock the greatest value from their marketing activity.Allan Stone, CEO at Intelitics, said: “We are delighted to have secured a licence from the Colorado Division of Gaming allowing us to work with licensed sportsbook operators in the state for the very first time.”“As legal online sports betting continues to roll out across the US, there is a tremendous first mover advantage to be had but operators must ensure they are acquiring players at the right cost and through channels that deliver true value.”“Our cutting-edge platform provides the real-time data, insight and reporting that operators need to do just that across all of the channels they use to market to players. We look forward to working with sportsbooks licensed in the state of Colorado.”
No one in the industry can underestimate the old fashioned values of building trust amongst customers. Richard Downey, Senior VP for Connections by the Specialist Works, understands that more than most. He sat down with Calvinayre.com’s Becky Liggero Fontana to share his insights on the U.S. sports betting market.Downey emphasized leveraging relationships from prior careers. “I was publisher of a magazine called Poker Player and I moved from there into the agency. I’ve been able to maintain an involvement in the gaming industry by having clients in the space,” Downey said.Downey is a firm believer that operators still require a that branding plays an integral part in building trust with customers in the highly competitive U.S. sports betting market. “In the gaming sector there is an element of credibility and trustworthiness that exists everywhere, but especially in the U.S. market. Getting access to online gaming in the U.S. market for the past period of time has not been completely legitimated. Gaming is being rebranded as mainstream entertainment and it’s really important that the brands that come through with it do a good job for the customers.”Downey pointed out that new operators have to consider the Vegas perceptions of gaming when it comes to brand marketing and alignment.“For a long time gaming has been synonymous with Las Vegas and therefore it’s completely logical that a lot of the Vegas gaming companies are using their brands to do that job of legitimization and credibility. If a gaming operator is trying to break into the mainstream market in the U.S. then I think having a credible brand behind you, either through brand recognition or through marketing is a good way of making people believe that you know that their gaming environment is a safe one,” he said.In the full interview, Downey gives advice for new operators for developing brand strategy in the U.S. sports betting market. And if you haven’t yet, watch all of our videos as they go up by subscribing to the CalvinAyre.com YouTube channel.
ปอยเปต คาสิโน ออนไลน์
ปอยเปต คาสิโน ออนไลน์
หลังจากที่นาย Andrew Cuomo ผู้ว่าการรัฐนิวยอร์กยอมรับในที่สุดเมื่อเดือนธันวาคมว่าการเร่งกิจกรรมการพนันกีฬาใน Empire State จะเป็นเรื่องที่ดีผู้ที่สนับสนุนแนวคิดนี้ในช่วงสองสามปีที่ผ่านมาพบว่ามีการต่ออายุความหวังในการบรรลุเป้าหมาย วุฒิสมาชิก Joseph Addabbo และสมาชิกสภา Gary Pretlow พยายามเรียกร้องให้รัฐเร่งการเปิดตัวการพนันกีฬา แต่ Cuomo ทำให้เรื่องยากขึ้นหลายครั้ง ตอนนี้ต้องเผชิญกับช่องโหว่ด้านงบประมาณจำนวนมาก Cuomo ได้เปิดโลกทัศน์ของเขาสู่ความเป็นจริงและ Pretlow ก็มองโลกในแง่ดีว่าการเปลี่ยนใจของผู้ว่าการรัฐจะช่วยให้นิวยอร์กเห็นการพนันกีฬาปรากฏขึ้นก่อนสิ้นปีนี้ Cuomo ผู้ซึ่งถูกวิพากษ์วิจารณ์ซ้ำแล้วซ้ำเล่าสำหรับการตัดสินใจที่ดูเหมือนจะไม่เป็นประโยชน์สูงสุดของชาวนิวยอร์กยืนกรานว่าการแนะนำการพนันกีฬามากขึ้นจะเป็นการต่อต้านและโดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งการพนันกีฬาออนไลน์จะต้องมีการแก้ไขรัฐ รัฐธรรมนูญ. อย่างไรก็ตามในช่วงไม่กี่ครั้งที่ผ่านมามันได้เปลี่ยนโทนสีไปอย่างสิ้นเชิงเนื่องจากแก้ไขปัญหาการขาดแคลนงบประมาณหลายพันล้านดอลลาร์ การพนันกีฬาและกัญชาถือเป็นวิธีการชดเชยความสูญเสียเหล่านี้และ Addabbo รู้สึกขอบคุณ เขาบอกกับ Casino.org เมื่อเร็ว ๆ นี้: “ฉันยังคงมองโลกในแง่ดีว่าหากอยู่ในงบประมาณวันที่ 1 เมษายนโดยมีความคิดริเริ่มเพียงเล็กน้อยรัฐบาลของรัฐของเราจะเริ่มใช้งานได้ภายในวันที่ 9 กันยายนซึ่งเป็นวันแรกของฤดูกาลฟุตบอล NFL “นิวยอร์กพลาดโอกาสในการสร้างรายได้จากการพนันกีฬาที่อาจเกิดขึ้นรัฐมีการพนันกีฬาสี่ประเภททางตอนเหนือซึ่งรวมรายได้ 3.6 ล้านดอลลาร์เมื่อเดือนมกราคมที่ผ่านมา L Indiana มีรายได้จากการพนันกีฬา 29.3 ล้านดอลลาร์ในเดือนเดียวกัน และรัฐมีขนาดเพียง 1 ใน 3 ของขนาดของนิวยอร์กในแง่ของจำนวนประชากร ณ จุดใดก็ตามนับตั้งแต่มีการออกกฎหมายในนิวยอร์กเพื่ออนุญาตให้มีการพนันกีฬารัฐสามารถเพิ่มจำนวนผู้ให้บริการที่ได้รับการอนุมัติซึ่งจะทำให้ จำนวนมากเพื่อต่อสู้กับผลกระทบจากการระบาดของ COVID-19 โชคดีที่นิวยอร์กยังไปไม่ถึง ฉันมาถึงจุดที่ไม่มั่นคงโดยสิ้นเชิง Addabbo เชื่อว่าด้วยกลไกที่ถูกต้องรัฐสามารถกลับมาวิ่งได้ แต่เสริมว่า“ เราเป็นรถคันนั้นในเลนขวาด้วยล้อที่สั่นคลอนสี่ล้อและเราก็เดินกะเผลก และรถเร็วอื่น ๆ เช่น (นิวเจอร์ซีย์) และเพนซิลเวเนียขับผ่านเราไป เป็นสถานที่ที่แปลกสำหรับนิวยอร์ก จากข้อเสนอของวุฒิสมาชิกซึ่งยังอยู่ระหว่างการเจรจาการพนันกีฬาในนิวยอร์กจะจ่ายภาษี 10% การศึกษาก่อนหน้านี้แสดงให้เห็นว่าตลาดในประเทศอาจมีมูลค่าสูงถึง 1 พันล้านดอลลาร์ต่อปีซึ่งจะเปลี่ยนเป็นรายได้ภาษี 100 ล้านดอลลาร์สำหรับนิวยอร์ก สิ่งนี้เพียงอย่างเดียวก็เพียงพอแล้วสำหรับฝ่ายนิติบัญญัติที่จะพิจารณาเรื่องนี้อย่างจริงจังมากขึ้นโดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งเมื่อพิจารณาว่าชาวนิวยอร์กกำลังข้ามพรมแดนเพื่อวางเดิมพัน Addabbo รู้ว่ายังมีงานที่ต้องทำอยู่และบอกกับ Casino.org ว่า“ ฉันคิดว่าทั้งหมดนี้เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของการเจรจาเรื่องงบประมาณ จำนวนสกินและค่าธรรมเนียมและอัตราภาษีที่เป็นส่วนสำคัญของการเจรจางบประมาณ ทั้งหมดนี้เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของการสนทนาที่เราจะมีและนั่นคือจุดที่เราจะต้องบรรลุข้อตกลง ”
ปอยเปต คาสิโน ออนไลน์
ปอยเปต คาสิโน ออนไลน์
Glorious Guardians is going to be a joint title, from Ash Gaming and Playtech, one of the 2021 slot games that will be coming out from this developer. The base for this one comes from China and from its amazing creatures specifically. We see the concept both in its design and in its utilization of Twin Symbols during its major feature.Glorious Guardians gives 5×3 reels. The slot will settle up to 2,000x the stake through its fixed bonanzas. It’s major features are the Wild, free spins with Twin Symbols and scattersBetting and Prizes A few fixed bonanzas can be delivered by Glorious Guardians. These are the Mega Jackpot of 2,000x the stake, Major Jackpot of 200x the stake and Mini Jackpot of 50x the stake.Glorious Guardians Slot Features In spite of the fact that extremely basic for an uncommon feature, the Wild image is as yet going to have a significant effect over the long haul, and for some it might simply do what’s necessary to transform a losing meeting into a productive one. The manner in which it works is standard, as a substitute that you can utilize while framing new blends, given that you get different images which are required.The huge feature of Glorious Guardians will depend on the free spins however. When you get those set off, you will locate that the first and fifth reels will have coordinating images on them, with the guardians covering both. During the free spins, this can make it simpler to shape 5 image mixes of that kind.Theme and Design Obviously, there is a major spotlight on the creatures mentioned in the story of China and I love how Playtech and Ash Gaming managed it design wise. We’re taking a look at a background picture showing palaces and sculptures of these creatures on the two sides while the reels mark the outer reels with red and the center ones are kept separate.Images will give you pictures of the Royals at first, beautiful but standard choices in any case. You at that point proceed onward to images with the creatures (Dragons in green or gold, White Tigers, Phoenix Bird Turtles) and the feature triggers (Wild).ConclusionGlorious Guardian is generally a good slot machine with nice features, so you can try it out.
ts911 คาสิโน ออนไลน์…
After a smashing Sunday, the action slowed down a little on Adda52.com. Headlining the Monday action on the site was the 8 Lac GTD Iron Man sporting a buy-in of INR 2000. Running as part of the site’s 18 Crore GTD ‘Fast & Furious February’, the marquee tourney pulled in 356 entries by the time late registration closed. After almost six and a half hours of intense play, it was the former GPS Melbourne winner, Deepak “peacelover” Singh, who outlasted the competition to win INR 2 Lac and his fourth MTT title of the year. The anonymous “foldkardunga” finished runner-up for 1.21 Lac.
Total Entries – 356Prizepool – 8 LacPlaces Paid – 38Min Cash – 4800
Abhijeet “2abhisingh” Kumar (3rd for INR 88,000), Parth “punit7690” Aggarwal (4th for INR 64,000), Uttam Kumar “chinunew” Sinha (7th for INR 24,000), and “iamaluksack” (8th for INR 20,000) were the other notable online regs who ended their run at the final table of the flagship tourney on Adda52.
2.75 Lac GTD Voyager
The other major tourney running as part of ‘Fast & Furious February’ was the 2.75 Lac GTD Voyager that logged in 273 entries to meet its specified guarantee. This month’s Maverick winner, Vaibhav “vroy219” Roy shipped it to win INR 71,500 and his second MTT title of the year on Adda52. He eventually outlasted “smr1g10” in the heads-up who banked INR 42,625 for his runner-up finish.
Total Entries – 273Prizepool – 2.75 LacPlaces Paid – 27Min Cash – 2475
Harsh “harsh1327” Bubna (4th for INR 23,375), Siddharth “gabandheer” Pandey (7th place for INR 8,938),Yash “yosher” Jain (8th for INR 6,875) were the other notables who final-tabled the tourney.
Clear Lines ระดับขั้นสูง PokerStars ไม่เคยหลีกเลี่ยงจากโปรโมชั่นพิเศษของ Spin & Go แต่สิ่งที่โป๊กเกอร์ออนไลน์เพิ่งประกาศนั้นแตกต่างกันเล็กน้อย แม้ว่าจะยังคงเป็นเพียงการโปรโมต Spin & Go กับลีดเดอร์บอร์ดและสิ่งอื่น ๆ แต่คราวนี้ PokerStars ได้ร่วมมือกับ Tetris ซึ่งเป็นวิดีโอเกมที่ดีที่สุดตลอดกาล Tetris Spin & Go เริ่มวันนี้ 15 กุมภาพันธ์และวิ่งถึง 28 มีนาคม มีสิบระดับให้เลือกซื้อตั้งแต่ $ 0.25 ถึง $ 500 จุดมุ่งหมายของการโปรโมตคือการล้างเส้นเช่นเดียวกับในเกม Tetris แต่ในกรณีนี้จะไม่มีบล็อกล้ม เพียงแค่โป๊กเกอร์ เราไม่เคยบอกว่ามันจะมีคณิตศาสตร์ในการทำให้ “เส้นสะอาด” คุณเพียงแค่ต้องเล่นเกม Tetris Spin & Go ที่ทำเครื่องหมายไว้ ผู้เล่นลบบรรทัดตามความสมบูรณ์ของพวกเขา แต่แต่ละช่องจะมีเส้นว่างอย่างน้อยหนึ่งเส้น จำนวนการเว้นบรรทัดไม่เพียงขึ้นอยู่กับลำดับการเข้าเส้นชัยเท่านั้น แต่ยังขึ้นอยู่กับตัวคูณด้วย เกมตัวคูณสองจะมีการหักบัญชีสี่สามและสองบรรทัดสำหรับอันดับที่หนึ่งสองและสามตามลำดับ ในเกมที่มีตัวคูณ 3 เท่าจำนวนบรรทัดที่เคลียร์จะลดลงทีละบรรทัด ที่ตัวคูณใด ๆ ที่สูงกว่านี้การกำหนดศูนย์ของเส้นคือสองหนึ่งและหนึ่ง ทุก ๆ ห้าบรรทัดเลเวลของผู้เล่นจะเพิ่มขึ้น ความหมายของสิ่งนี้คือยิ่งเลเวลสูงขึ้นผู้เล่นจะได้รับคะแนนจากสกอร์บอร์ดมากขึ้น สูตรสำหรับคะแนนค่อนข้างง่าย เส้นสะอาดหนึ่งเส้นให้ 40 คะแนนมากกว่าระดับของผู้เล่น ดังนั้นสำหรับระดับ 0 คือ 40 x (0 + 1) ซึ่งก็คือ 40 คะแนน สองบรรทัดเคลียร์รางวัล 100 x (n + 1) โดยที่ n คือระดับของผู้เล่น ถ้าคุณล้างสามบรรทัดสูตรคือ 300 x (n + 1) และถ้าคุณล้างสี่บรรทัดสูตรคือ 1200 x (n + 1) ดังนั้นจึงเป็นสิ่งสำคัญในการเพิ่มระดับ เกมเหนือมนุษย์เกมจบ! และเนื่องจากโปรโมชั่นนี้อิงจากวิดีโอเกมอย่างหลวม ๆ จึงมีโอกาสที่ข้อความ “GAME OVER” จะปรากฏบนหน้าจอ ในกรณีนี้เกมโอเวอร์หมายความว่าโอกาสในการทำคะแนนได้มากขึ้นในกระดานคะแนนรายวันสิ้นสุดลงและผู้เล่นจะต้องรอจนกว่าจะถึงวันถัดไปจึงจะลองอีกครั้ง “สนามเด็กเล่น” ยังประกอบด้วย 20 ระดับโดยผู้เล่นแต่ละคนจะเริ่มจากศูนย์ ขึ้นอยู่กับตำแหน่งของผู้เล่นใน Tetris Spin & Go ระดับของผู้เล่นอาจเพิ่มขึ้นหรือลดลง ความเป็นไปได้ของการเคลื่อนที่ขึ้นลงหรือไม่ขึ้นลงโดยสิ้นเชิงจะแตกต่างกันไปตามระดับและตำแหน่งสิ้นสุด การชนะ Spin & Go ทำให้มั่นใจได้ว่าอย่างน้อยระดับยังคงเหมือนเดิม การสูญเสียรับประกันว่าจะไม่เพิ่มขึ้น มันไม่มีวันลดลงถึงระดับ 0 หรือ 1 แต่สถานะรหัสสีของสนามแข่งขัน (เขียวเหลืองแดง) บ่งบอกว่าเกมจะจบลงแค่ไหน ผู้เล่นที่ติดอันดับ 100 อันดับแรกตั้งแต่ $ 0.25 ถึง $ 5 จะได้รับรางวัลเงินสด 50 อันดับแรกจ่ายที่ 10 เหรียญและ 25 เหรียญและ 20 อันดับแรกจ่ายที่ 50 เหรียญและ 100 เหรียญ สำหรับลีดเดอร์บอร์ด $ 250 มีเพียงห้าอันดับแรกเท่านั้นที่จ่ายและมีเพียงผู้ชนะเท่านั้นที่ได้รับเงินจากลีดเดอร์บอร์ด $ 500
Some places the study was featured.
The following is reposted from a 2015 piece I wrote for Bluff magazine. It was originally located at this URL but has become unavailable due to Bluff going out of business. I saw this study mentioned recently in Maria Konnikova’s book ‘The Biggest Bluff’ and was reminded about this piece and noticed it was offline, so I wanted to share it again. A few notes on this piece:
The original title below and was more negative-sounding than I liked; Bluff chose it. Also, if I could rewrite this piece now, I’d probably choose less negative-sounding phrasing in some places.
Regardless of the exact factors that might be at work in the found correlation, I realize it’s scientifically interesting that a significant correlation was found. But I also think it’s possible to draw simplistic and wrong conclusions from the study, and my piece hopefully gives more context about the factors that might be at work.
Image on left taken from Michael Slepian’s media page.
The Slepian Study on Betting Motions Doesn’t Pass Muster
A 2013 study¹ conducted at Stanford University by graduate student Michael Slepian and associates found a correlation between the “smoothness” of a betting motion and the strength of the bettor’s hand. In a nutshell, there was a positive correlation found between betting motions perceived as “smooth” and “confident” and strong hands. The quality of the betting motions was judged by having experiment participants watch short clips of players making bets (taken from the 2009 WSOP Main Event) and estimate the hand strength of those bets.
This experiment has gotten a lot of press over the last couple years. I first heard about it on NPR. Since, I’ve seen it referenced in poker blogs and articles and in a few mainstream news articles. I still occasionally hear people talk about it at the table when I play. I’ve had friends and family members reference it and send me links to it. It’s kind of weird how much attention it received, considering the tons of interesting studies that are constantly being done, but I guess it can be chalked up to the mystique and “sexiness” of poker tells.
The article had more than casual interest for me. I’m a former professional poker player and the author of two books on poker behavior: Reading Poker Tells and Verbal Poker Tells. I’ve been asked quite a few times about my opinion on this study, and I’ve been meaning to look at the study more closely and write up my thoughts for a while.
In this article, I’ll give some criticisms of the study and some suggestions for how this study (and similar studies) could be done better. This isn’t to denigrate the work of the experiment’s designers. I think this is an interesting study, and I hope it will encourage similar studies using poker as a means to study human behavior. But I do think it was flawed in a few ways, and it could be improved in many ways.
That’s not to say that I think their conclusion is wrong; in fact, in my own experience, I think their conclusion is correct. I do, however, think it’s a very weak general correlation and will only be practically useful if you have a player-specific behavioral baseline. My main point is that this study is not enough, on its own, to cause us to be confident about the conclusion.
I’ll give a few reasons for why I think the study is flawed, but the primary underlying reason is a common one for studies involving poker: the study’s organizers just don’t know enough about how poker works. I’ve read about several experiments involving poker where the organizers were very ignorant about some basic aspects of poker, and this affected the way the tests were set up and the conclusions that were reached (and this probably applies not just to poker-related studies but to many studies that involve an activity that requires a lot of experience to understand well).
Poker can seem deceptively simple to people first learning it, and even to people who have played it for decades. Many bad players lose money at poker while believing that they’re good, or even great players. In the same way, experiment designers may falsely believe they understand the factors involved in a poker hand, while being far off the mark.
Here are the flaws, as I see them, in this study:
1. The experimenters refer to all WSOP entrants as ‘professional poker players.’
This first mistake wouldn’t directly affect the experiment, but it does point to a basic misunderstanding of poker and the World Series of Poker, which might indirectly affect other aspects of the experiment and its conclusions.
Here are a couple examples of this from the study:
The World Series of Poker (WSOP), originating in 1970, brings together professional poker players every year (from the study’s supplemental materials)
These findings are notable because the players in the stimulus clips were highly expert professionals competing in the high-stakes WSOP tournament.
The WSOP Main Event is open to anyone and most entrants are far from being professional poker players. Categorizing someone’s poker skill can be difficult and subjective, but Kevin Mathers, a long-time poker industry worker, estimates that only 20% of WSOP Main Event entrants are professional (or professional-level) players.
This also weakens the conclusion that the results are impressive due to the players analyzed being professional-level. While the correlation found in this experiment is still interesting, it is somewhat expected that amateur players would have behavioral inconsistencies. I’d be confident in predicting that a similar study done on only video clips of bets made by professional poker players would not find such a clear correlation.
2. Hand strength is based on comparing players’ hands
This is a line from the study that explains their methodology for categorizing a player’s hand as ‘weak’ or ‘strong’:
Each player’s objective likelihood of winning during the bet was known (WSOP displays these statistics on-screen; however, we kept this information from participants by obscuring part of the screen).
They relied on the on-screen percentage graphics, which are displayed beside a player’s hand graphics in the broadcast. These graphics show the likelihood of a player’s hand winning; it does this by comparing it to the other players’ known hands. This makes it an illogical way to categorize whether a player believes he is betting a weak or strong hand.
If this isn’t clear, here’s a quick example to make my point:
A player has QQ and makes an all-in bet on a turn board of Q-10-10-8. Most people would say that this player has a strong hand and has every reason to believe he has a strong hand. But, if his opponent had 10-10, the player with Q-Q would have a 2.27% chance of winning with one card to come. According to this methodology, the player with the Q-Q would be judged as having a weak hand; if the test participants categorized that bet as representing a strong hand, they would be wrong.
It’s not stated in the study or the supplemental materials if the experimenters accounted for such obvious cases of how using the percentage graphics might skew the results. It’s also not stated how the experimenters would handle river (last-round) bets, when one hand has a 100 percent winning percentage and the losing hand has 0 percent (the only exception would be a tie).
It’s admittedly difficult to come up with hard-and-fast rules for categorizing hand strength for the purposes of such an experiment. As someone who has thought more than most about this problem, for the purpose of analyzing and categorizing poker tells, I know it’s a difficult task. But using the known percentages of one hand beating another known hand is clearly a flawed approach.
The optimal approach would probably be to come up with a system that pits a poker hand against a logical hand range, considering the situation, or even a random hand range, and uses that percentage-of-winning to rank the player’s hand strength. If this resulted in too much hand-strength ambiguity, the experiment designers could throw out all hands where the hand strength fell within a certain medium-strength range. Such an approach would make it more likely that only strong hand bets and weak hand bets were being used and, equally important for an experiment like this, that the player believed he or she was betting either a strong or weak hand.
3. Situational factors were not used to categorize betting motions
When considering poker-related behavior, situations are very important. A small continuation-bet on the flop is different in many ways from an all-in bet on the river. One way they are different: a small bet is unlikely to cause stress in the bettor, even if the bettor has a weak hand.
Also, a player making a bet on an early round has a chance for improving his hand; whereas a player betting on the river has no chance to improve his hand. When a player bets on the river, he will almost always know whether he is bluffing or value-betting; this is often not the case on earlier rounds, when hand strength is more ambiguous and undefined.
This experiment had no system for selecting the bets they chose for inclusion in the study. The usability of the clips was apparently based only on whether the clip meant certain visual needs of the experiment: i.e., did the footage show the entirety of the betting action and did it show the required amount of the bettor’s body?
From the study:
Research assistants, blind to experimental hypotheses, extracted each usable video in each installment, and in total extracted 22 videos (a standard number of stimuli for such studies; Ambady & Rosenthal, 1993) for Study 2 in the main text.
Study 1 videos required a single player be in the frame from the chest-up, allowing for whole-body, face-only, and arms-only videos to be created by cropping the videos. These videos were therefore more rare, and the research assistants only acquired 20 such videos.
The fact that clips were chosen only based on what they showed is not necessarily a problem. If a hand can be accurately categorized as strong or weak, then it doesn’t necessarily matter when during a hand it occurred. If there is a correlation between perceived betting motion quality and hand strength, then it will probably make itself known no matter the context of the bet.
Choosing bets only from specific situations would have made the experiment stronger and probably would have led to more definite conclusions. It could also help address the problem of categorizing hand strength. For example, if the experiment designers had only considered bets above a certain size that had occurred on the river (when all cards are out and there are no draws or semi-bluffs to be made), then that would result in polarized hand strengths (i.e., these bets would be very likely to be made with either strong or weak hands).
Also, the experiment’s method for picking clips sounds like it could theoretically result in all strong-hand bets being picked, or all weak-hand bets being picked. There is nothing in the experiment description that requires a certain amount of weak hands or strong hands. This is not in itself bad, but could affect the experiment in unforeseen ways.
For example, if most of the betting motion clips chosen were taken from players betting strong hands (which would not be surprising, as most significant bets, especially post-flop, are for value), then this could introduce some unforeseen bias into the experiment. One way this might happen: when a video clip shows only the betting motion (and not, for example, the bettor’s entire torso or just the face, as were shown to some study groups), this focus might emphasize the bet in the viewer’s mind and make the bet seem stronger. And if most of the hands-only betting clips were of strong-hand bets (and I have no idea how many were), the study participants watching only the hand-motion betting clips would falsely appear to be making good guesses.
My main point here is that thinking about the situational factors of a betting motion, and incorporating that into the experiment in some way, would have resulted in less ambiguity about the results. (It appears that it was difficult to find usable clips from a single WSOP event; in that case, the experimenters could just add footage from another WSOP Main Event to the study.)
4. The number of chips bet was not taken into account
The experiment designers did not take into account the chips that were bet. In their words:
During betting, each player pushes poker chips into the center of the table. Each chip has a specific color, which indicates a specific value. These values range from $25 to $100,000. This range of chip values has a crucial consequence for the current work. The number of chips does not correlate with the quality of the hand (see Table 1A in the main text). Players could move a stack of 20 chips into the center of the table, and this could be worth $500 or $2,000,000 (the winner of the 2009 WSOP won $8,547,042, thus the latter bet magnitude is a bet that can be made in the WSOP). Because no participants were professional poker players, nor considered themselves poker experts, they were not aware of chip values. They could not, then, use the number of chips as a valid cue to judge poker hand quality.
It’s true that your average person would not know what the chip colors at the WSOP Main Event mean. But it seems naïve to think that seeing the chips being bet couldn’t possibly have an effect on the experiment.
For one thing, the number of chips being bet could bias a participant to think a bet was stronger or weaker, whether correctly or incorrectly. What if all the strong-hand bets in the study were also bets that involved a lot of chips? (This is not implausible because smaller bets with weak hands are common early in a hand, when bets are small, whereas larger bets later in the hand are more likely to represent strong hands.) And what if some of the study participants were able to deduce (consciously or unconsciously) the strength of the bet from the number of chips?
Also, it’s possible that some of the test participants were knowledgeable (consciously or not) about some WSOP chip colors and what their denominations were. Or they were able to deduce (consciously or not), from the arrangement and number of chips, what the chip values were. (For example, large denomination chips are generally required to be kept at the front of a player’s stack.)
Again, this could have been addressed by selecting bets taken only from specific situations and only of certain bet sizes. If all bets chosen were above a certain bet size, and this was communicated to the study participants, then this would have lessened the impact of the chips being able to be seen.
5. Quality of “smoothness” was subjective
The experiment was based on the perceptions of study participants watching the assembled video clips. It was not based on objective measurements of what constitutes “smoothness” of a betting motion. This was a known issue in the experiment:
Thus, both player confidence and smoothness judgments significantly predicted likelihoods of winning, which suggests that movement smoothness might be a valid cue for assessing poker hand quality. It is unknown, however, how participants interpreted “smoothness” or whether the players’ movements that participants rated as smooth were truly smoother than other players’ movements. Other physical factors, such as speed, likely played a role.
This is not a major criticism; I think using perception is a fine way to find a correlation, especially for a preliminary study. But I think it does mean that we have no reason to be confident in the idea that smoothness of betting motion is correlated with hand strength. If there is are correlations between betting motion and hand strength (which I believe there are), these could be due to other aspects of arm motion or hand motion, such as: the betting speed, the position of the hands, the height of the hand, or other, more obscure, factors.
Again, I don’t mean to denigrate the experiment designers and the work they’ve done. I think this was an interesting experiment, and I think it’s probable the correlation they noticed exists (however weak the correlation may be).
Also, as someone who is very interested in poker behavior, I’d love to see similar studies be done. My main goal in writing these criticisms and suggestions was to emphasize that poker is complex, as is poker behavior. There are many behavioral factors in a seemingly simple hand of poker and taking these factors into account can make an experiment stronger and the results more conclusive.
Patricia Cardner, PhD, EdD, is a poker player and the author of Positive Poker, a book about the psychological characteristics of professional poker players. She had this to say about poker’s use in scientific studies:
“While researchers often have the best of intentions, it is difficult for them to fully understand the nuances of poker. Researchers who reach out to poker players for help can make more informed decisions about the research areas they choose to pursue, increase reliability and validity, and improve the overall quality of their results and conclusions.”
¹: Slepian, M.L., Young, S.G., Rutchick, A.M. & Ambady, N. Quality of Professional Players’ Poker Hands Is Perceived Accurately From Arm Motions. Psychological Science (2013) 24(11) 2335–2338.